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Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Welsh Facts and Figures

  • 194,000 people in Wales are living with diabetes. 90% Type 2
  • This is 7.4% of the population >17 years, the highest prevalence in the UK
  • An estimated additional 580,000 at risk of developing diabetes
  • Diabetes costs the NHS approx. £500m /year, 10% of its annual budget


  • Prediabetes is a condition of high insulin levels and insulin resistance which causes blood glucose levels to be higher than normal
  • It is defined by blood glucose levels that fall between normal and those defining type 2 diabetes are typically known as Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose tolerance (IGT) or collectively as ‘Pre-diabetes’
  • Testing for pre-diabetes in those most ‘at risk’ is an important step for risk reduction in the preventing progression to type 2 diabetes and associated complications.

High risk is indicated by:

  • A fasting plasma glucose of 5.5–6.9 mmol/l or
  • An HbA1c level of 42–47 mmol/mol [6.0–6.4%]
The cornerstone of treatment is lifestyle changes.

Lifestyle interventions aimed at changing an individual’s behaviour around diet and physical active, can halve the number of people with impaired glucose tolerance who go on to develop type 2 diabetes (NICE 2016).